Dr. Ioannis MANAKOS, ITI-CERTH, EARSeL Başkanı, Yunanistan
Remote Sensing in Europe: Status analysis and trends focusing on Environment and Agriculture
Abstract: Target of the European policy is to safeguard and improve, wherever possible, through directives and regulations (like the Water Framework Directive, the Nitrate Directive, Urban Thematic Strategy, Biodiversity Strategy, Natura2000, Flood Directive, and others) the quality of life of the citizens. High priority is set to the protection of the environment through the rational usage of the resources, the food security, and the reduction of risks and threats. Tackling the challenge, Information Services, based on the combination, analysis and modeling of data received from Earth Observation satellites as well as ground-based networks, operate or are planned to operate in an integrated manner to provide wide-area and cross boarder harmonized geo-information products. To this end, Remote Sensing is a key element for registering the surface status near real time, monitoring changes, and supporting and testing scenaria by projecting the validated trends in the present and past to delineate possible situations in the future.
The speech attempts to provide an overview of European initiatives on strategic and executive levels, potentials and limitations of existing approaches, existing service specifications and operation requirements, and an update regarding on-going projects, fostering Remote Sensing incorporation in the Decision Support and Policy Implementation chain.
Dr. Rosa LASAPONARA, IMAA-CNR, EARSeL Genel Sekreteri, İtalya
Remote sensing in archaeology: past, present and future perspectives
Abstract: The current availability of a tremendous amount of invaluable data coming from diverse non-invasive remote sensing sources can support a scalable and modular approach to archaeological surveys in a significant improvement of knowledge as a continuous and dynamic process oriented to collect and combine pieces of information on past human activities, thus should enable us to better understand the past.
The importance of applying remote sensing technology to archaeological research has been paid great attention worldwide, due to the following aspects:
(i) the improvement in spectral and spatial resolution reveals increasing detailed information for archaeological purposes;
(ii) the synoptic view offered by satellite data helps us to understand the complexity of archaeological investigations at a variety of different scales;
(iii) satellite-based digital elevation models (DEMs) are widely used in archaeology for several purposes to considerably improve data analysis and interpretation;
(iv) the availability of long satellite time series allows the monitoring of hazard and risk in archaeological sites;
(v) remotely sensed data enable us to carry out both inter and intra site prospection and data analysis.
(vi) radar offer very high resolution data
(vii) Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) as a quite recent (mid-1990s) remote sensing technique with the unique capability to penetrate vegetation canopies and identify earthwork features even under dense vegetation cover.
Potential and limitation of active and passive satellite and aerial sensors will be presented along with significant test studies selected from South America (Peru, Bolivia, Europe).
Prof. Mag. Dr. Wolfgang SULZER, Karl Franzens Üniversitesi, Avusturya
Remote Sensing technologies and applications for monitoring high mountain environments
Abstract: Mountains in general cover close to 20 % of the Earth’s surface, providing a home to approximately one-tenth of the global human population. With their steep and varied topography, and distinct altitudinal ecological zones, mountains support a high diversity of species and ecosystems and a large percentage of global endemic species. Mountainous areas throughout the world provide essential resources such as timber, minerals, recreational escapes, and a significant portion of the freshwater consumed by humans. They are rich sites for cultural diversity and for tourism. Mountains have a special role in showing the effects of climate change, too.
Remote high mountain areas of the world often suffer from appropriate geodata for investigating purposes. No or only few very roughly produced data bases are available. Remote Sensing therefore means a valuable tool for providing basic and specific thematic information. High Mountain areas are regions, which are especially suitable for providing surface information by means of Remote Sensing. Remoteness, inaccessibleness and high relief engender limits for terrestrial methods. Remote Sensing techniques provide useful tools for spatial and especially for height related interpolation of local – field based acquired information. Due to their contactless and spatial extent, aerial photographs and satellite images get an increasing importance for many mountain related topics (LULUC, change detection, hazards, monitoring, etc.). The knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of remote sensing and the careful evaluation of remotely sensed image data are inevitable for the meaningful, effective and financially feasible application of these techniques.
The first part this paper will discuss typical data based problems in High Mountain areas and the applicability of Remote Sensing data in high mountain environment in respect to their limits (shadow, relief displacement, snow cover, clouds, etc.) itself. The general requirements for mapping purposes and topics of interest will be discussed in this part, too.
In the second part of the paper different High Mountain Remote Sensing applications, the used methods and techniques will be presented. Mountain environments are likely to be among the most severely impacted ecosystems as a result of climate change. The applications will document case studies of different high mountains of the world (Alps, Tatry Mountains, Etna, Andes and Himalayas), with different approaches, sensors and topics. Monitoring concepts of glacier investigations by means of terrestrial (laserscanner) and airborne/spaceborne sensors (aerial photographs, optical satellite images, laserscanner, radar data) are main research topics of the Institute for Geography and Regional Sciences and their partners in Graz. Comparative studies of vegetation belts in different High Mountain areas of the word will show the possibilities and advances of Remote Sensing as well as the mapping capabilities for topographic maps and hazard/landslides inventories.